Which type of stretching exercises technique is the most effective method?

The role of sports and physical activity has become more and more popular in some developed countries. Trainers and athletes are becoming more concerned with prevention and sports injuries than ever. Muscular injuries are the most commonly occurred in sports that required bursts of speed and rapid acceleration and deceleration, such as rugby, football and sprinting events, and are the major causes of lost time from the sporting activities. Sports therapist found that hamstring muscle strain is a common injury among sports. There are many proposed etiologies for hamstring muscle group injuries:

(1) Strength imbalance
(2) Lack of flexibility exercises
(3) Muscle fatigue and
(4) Inadequate warm up before exercise.

Since sport injury is multifactorial, we could pay more attentions to the activities between the flexibility of the muscles and the other measurable performance factors.

Muscle stretching has long been considered a major component in the prevention and rehabilitation of sports injuries in warm up period. In the past, much of the investigation focused on the most effective hamstring muscle group stretching method. Ballistic stretching, static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) are presently used to improve flexibility.  But, the ballistic technique is performed with a bouncing movement and will reflexively cause a protective muscle contraction of the activated muscles. Thus, stretching a muscle against muscle contraction would increase the chance of injury to the muscle and tendons.

Muscle flexibility and isokinetic strength are very important to athletes, more effort and training should be put to enhance their athletic performance. Some sports therapy focus on the relationship between hamstring muscle flexibility, rate of injury and the most effective hamstring stretching method. They support the fact that stretching provides a good mean to increase the muscle flexibility. A great deal of variability exists, however, concerning which type of stretching technique is the most effective method.

The sports therapist suggested that both the static stretching and the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) can increase the hamstring muscle flexibility and the isokinetic peak torque after a 3-week training. Increases in hamstring muscle flexibility range from 26.5 % for the static stretching group to 30 % for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group.

Hamstring muscle length is only one of many factors, which can affect hip flexion and knee extension during the assessment and stretching training. Other limiting factors and psychological reaction toward muscle stretching cannot be eliminated.  It is concluded that the static stretching exercises and the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation may be effective technique for increasing the hamstring muscle flexibility and the hamstring isokinetic peak torque in the open kinetic chain. 


Vitamin C and the symptoms of common colds after heavy exercise

People who take part in heavy sports exercise have been shown to have a higher incidence of respiratory infections. In a report of about three placebo-controlled studies of the results of vitamin C in persons undergoing heavy physical stress, the incidence of colds was much lower in the group that was being given supplement C.

The groups incorporated within this analyze were "school children at a snowboarding camp in the Swiss Alps, military troops training in Northern Canada, as well as participants in a 90km running race." During the examine for the 90km race participants, exactly the same researchers also ran a parallel study together with subjects (using the same protocol) that were not participating in the race.

The results showed that vitamin and mineral C did not decrease the incidence of colds in the group that did not run the race. The obvious implication the following is that nutritional C really does not decrease the incidence of colds in normal subjects; people under physical stress, however, seem to have got a lowered incidence of colds if they use supplement C. This really is consistent with the previous research which also showed that supplement C was only able to lessen the symptoms of colds fairly compared to the incidence of colds.

Supplement C will not appear to reduce the incidence of colds in "normal" people; it only decreases the incidence of colds in individuals who are under heavy physical stress. Thus, surplus nutritional C should not be ingested simply to avoid colds unless the person happens to be a training athlete or is under some other physical stress. Generally there are, however, some other benefits of supplement C that are not discussed with this paper along with which might warrant everyday ingestion of vitamin C at doses higher than the 62 mg/day that is at present recommended with the RDA.

Since vitamin C appears to minimize the symptoms of colds, it is advisable that people use nutritional C during episodes of the common cool. Finally, generally there are biochemical models that explain how nutritional C may well have the opportunity to have got these effects.


What is aerobic exercise and the benefits for different types of aerobic exercises

Aerobic exercises are considered the most in-demand types of programs in the marketplace. Their particular utilizing songs, party, products along with other institutions include included with be capable of the appeal. Aerobic exercises are usually workout routines, which choose to raise the heart rhythm to obtain a time period. This will surely increase the risk for entire body to possess greater usage including outdoors that will impact directly into exceptional blood circulation, fat loss, faster fat as well as excess fat decreasing. The particular aerobic exercises are designed for creating numerous advantages. A more particular gain that is observed is in leading to lowering of the fats saved limited with the actual abdominal region, body-fat loss answers are noticed on the system.

Cardio and aerobic exercises are of help to boost the breathing muscle tissue plus it leads to smoother and also unlabored breathing. These workouts are good for strengthening the aerobic muscle tissue looked after raises the hearts pumping performance. It shades the actual muscle tissue of most parts of an entire body which brings about enhanced the circulation of blood and lowered blood pressure. It increases the quantity of reddish bloodstream tissues in the body, helping to make for improved transportation associated with oxygen throughout the body. Therefore, cardiovascular and cardio are helpful to obtain the more powerful muscle tissues as muscle tissue can be a key to boosting your fat loss even you're not doing exercises. The most common method of getting more robust muscle tissue is actually strength training but lifting weight requires joining or even going to the gym. You can find efficient way regarding using up quick weight is actually aerobic and cardio because these are incredibly helpful.

Essentially, cardio denotes oxygen presence. The actual cardio is always considered greatest as they help you in a number of ways. They will reinforce the heart permitting air to get to muscle tissue successfully. Further, they increase the approach your body uses oxygen; likewise, the aerobic exercises enhance muscle tissue's capability to metabolize excess fat. There are numerous benefits of doing aerobic exercise besides using up calories from fat. It offers power towards the entire body simply by raising quantity of mitochondria in tissues, cuts down on the danger related to most cancers and cardiovascular disease, increases blood flow, enhances to sleep on top quality, and minimizes stress and increase expected life. Carrying out Cardio, capillaries within muscle tissues improve letting air to have delivered to the actual muscle tissues as well as removing carbon dioxide in an efficient method.

In many circumstances, anaerobic workout takes place simultaneously with aerobic exercises as the less capable anaerobic metabolic rate should health supplement the actual cardiovascular program as a result of vitality calls for in which surpass the actual cardio body’s capacity. What's usually known as the aerobic exercise might be far better named "solely aerobic," because it's built to be low-intensity enough not to generate lactate via pyruvate fermentation, so that all carbohydrate is aerobically turned into energy.

High impact aerobic exercises use various movements. It might consist of leaping, turning, auto shuffling, increasing, and so forth. This type of exercise offers to create the stomach area, calf, and also the coronary heart. If an individual is agile and active prior to working out, then high-impact aerobics may be the best option. But for beginners, slower and low-impact ex-ercises is recommended first. When the individual is already comfortable with this low-impact level, then it would be safe to move forward using the 2nd stage.

You've always wondered how many types of cardio you are able to choose from. Well, there is strolling, going swimming, walking, as well as grooving for a short list which you'll select within relate with most of all the physical condition after that from then on after your background, aim as well as curiosity. Really one of the best aerobic exercises as well as diabetes activities will be leaping string. An individual hop, lifts, and also lifts your body when bouncing rope. It calls for sustaining stability and a significantly level of control and also time. A brief 2-5 min's associated with the piece of string leaping is the same as twenty or so minutes regarding walking. Thus, this is an excellent way to quickly reduce weight, increase cardio center prices as well as reduce blood insulin reliance. Bouncing rope is among the best but most strenuous from the cardio.

You ought to be option together to possess a better workout. You understand cardio tend to be associated with mainly two types lower and high-impact The following low influence isn't that much more difficult however high-impact will be more difficult in addition to can cause harm. And to be alternative between them is called cross-training, which is best as it helps in lessening the chances of injuries or muscle overuse.

The very best choice aerobic fitness exercise is to merely choose an additional major exercise. For instance, you can walk three nights then wander the mediocre ones. You can find, nevertheless, other terrific aerobic exercises to select from at night four primary workout routines? The very best option cardio to consider are usually outdoor biking, stationary biking, rowing, cross-country skiing, jump roping and also going swimming.

You may be wondering, do my every week basketball games count alternatively exercising aerobically? Virtually every fun sports activity comes with an lively period plus a sleeping stage. Effective aerobic exercises are continuous and the resting phases in recreational sports break that flow. It’s best not to count these as an exercise session.

If you want to attempt aerobic exercises, it would be best if you obtain an instructor. Your own coach or a more skillful physical exercise spouse may keep you motivated to complete your work away routine. The personal coach may also make certain you usually are not over training, and that you do the particular workout routines properly as well as safely. In case your budget doesn't allow you to employ your own trainer in a health club, you are able to select to join an online aerobic workout program.


Sports Therapy and the Proper Knowledge of Sports Medicine

Sports therapy is a section of medicine which aims at on assisting athletes avoids injuries. Sports therapists also cure injuries and rehabilitate athletes after injuries. Based on the sports physical therapy section of the United States Physical Therapy Association, the exercise also helps improve the performance of athletes. In golf, sports therapy uses the techniques of the golf swing to help athletes execute better on the course.

Sports therapy usually starts with an evaluation. Exercises therapists are trained to look for both current and chronic injuries. They might spot an injury the athlete doesn't realize she has. In line with the Sports Physical Therapy Section, evaluations include a full evaluation of all injuries, including those which needed surgery. Sports therapists also assess athletes after an injury to make sure it's safe for them to get back into the action.

For anybody who is active or athletic, a day not on the courts, course, road or trail is at best unbearable. Everybody has a chance to be injured at any time, and athletic injuries are unique because they occur during a time of rigorous activity. Sports therapy for injury management aims to help athletes manage their pain and make the most of their recovery time. The amount of time an athlete spends in sports therapy after an injury relies on the severity of the injury.

Lots of people go into this occupation with the idea that they will be treating professional or world class athletes and that is possible, such as sports therapy massage, it is normally used for athletes to stay healthy and carry out at their optimal level. It not only prevents injury but also eases tension and increase flexibility. Primarily it is used to release the tension built up in the muscles, expand and extend muscle and alleviate aches and pains. A proper knowledge of human anatomy and massage techniques is necessary before attempting sports therapy massage. But another bit of sports physical therapy info you need in relation to a career is that all kinds of people use sports therapy for recovery. You will be seeing the amateur athlete, people with long-term illness like heart disease, arthritis, and head injuries. It isn't unusual for patients with cerebral palsy and sports related injuries to seek healing from sports physical therapists as well.


Heat therapy techniques after sports injury

The most useful of heat therapy after sports injury consist of: immersion in hot water, hot packs, paraffin-wax baths and electric pads.  Heat therapy must not be used immediately after an injury, but should be delayed for at least 12 to 24 hours. It causes a dilatation of the capillaries of the part under heat therapy, and if used too soon aggravates the inflammatory reaction and encourages bleeding from the torn blood vessels. The application of heat to an injured part relieves pain and muscle spasm, through its effects on the nerve endings in the skin. This is particularly true of the moist forms of heat, e.g. paraffin-wax and hot packs. Heat also assists in the repair process by increasing the blood supply to the injured area.

Simple heat therapy have a direct heating effect on the skin, heating of the structures which lie immediately beneath the skin, such as ligaments, is possible to a limited degree by conduction, i.e. the temperature of the skin is raised and the adjacent tissues absorb some of the heat. Short-wave diathermy and ultrasonic therapy are capable of heating the deeper structures after sports injury.

Immersion in hot water
The heat penetrates the skin to a small degree only, and the heating effect on the deeper tissues is negligible. Generally the treatment Is used only when other forms of heat therapy are not available. Immersion time: 20 to 30 minutes. 

Hot packs
The heating effect after sports injury is again superficial. Hot packs are widely used, however, because they form a very simple and practical method of applying moist heat in the relief of pain. The toweling pack has now been largely superseded by the steam pad. This pack is inexpensive, and can be easily used at home by the player. It consists of a thick linen pad, 12x10 in., which contains special filler which absorbs up to three times its own volume of water. It is stitched into several sections, so that it is flexible and can be molded to any part of the body.
The pad is placed in a saucepan of hot water, and boiled for about 30 minutes. It is next lifted out of the water by the loops which are attached to each corner, and wrapped in four or five thicknesses of Turkish toweling. The pad is then placed on the injured part, and covered with two or more layers of toweling to conserve heat. The top towel is usually wound round the area being treated, to hold the pack firmly in place. The pack is left in position for about 20 to 30 minutes.
Sheets of foam rubber, 1/2 in. thick, may be used to replace the towels after sports injury, this heat treatment simplifies application. After being boiled, the pad is laid on a piece of foam rubber, which is folded over it. A towel is placed over the injured part, and covered by another piece of foam rubber. The pack is placed on top of the rubber square, and held in place by a towel. The foam rubber can be used a great many times before it needs to be replaced. 

Paraffin-wax baths
When a wax bath is used the heating effect is slightly greater than that produced by the two previous treatments after sports injury. If the wax is applied as a pack the heating effect is not so pronounced.  Wax baths are only suitable for injuries of the hands, wrists, elbows, feet and ankles.
The wax is usually heated to a temperature of between 110°F. and 120°F, and it is best to use a wax with a low melting point (110°K).  A wax pack is made by using a 2 in. paintbrush, and applying six to eight coats of hot wax to the affected area; the wax may also be applied with a soup ladle. The part is then covered with grease-proof paper, well wrapped in a large piece of old blanket, and left for about 20 to 30 minutes.

Electric pads
Superficial heating only, as with the hot pack after sports injury, the dry form of heat produced by an electric pad is not so effective in relieving pain as moist heat.


Cold treatment is used immediately after injuries

Cold applications and treatment:

The simplest and most effective method of applying cold treatment consists of immersing the injured part in ice-cold water. Other methods include ice-packs and compresses. Cold applications must be applied immediately, or as soon as possible, after the injury has taken place. It should be noted, however, that cold can be used to relieve pain and associated muscle spasm in the later phases of recovery.  Indeed, in recent years many therapists have advocated cold applications and treatment for this purpose instead of traditional forms of heat. 

Effects of cold applications and treatment
The application and treatment of cold to an injured part relieves the pain, through its effect on the nerve endings in the skin: in some cases the relief seems to last for a longer time than when heat is used as a palliative agent. Physiologists investigating the effects of local cooling on the body tissues have not only found that cold reduces the conductivity of nerves, but that the susceptibility of nerves to cooling varies with the type and size of the fibers. Experiments have shown that some smaller diameter fibers are more readily influenced than large diameter fibers. If the intention is to use cold to reduce muscle spasm and initiate active movement a temperature of between 12°C. and 15°C. (53’6° F. and 59°F.) is best.

Limiting swelling
It is possible that cold applications and treatment also help to restrict the traumatic effusion or swelling which accompanies a local inflammation, by causing a constriction of the dilated capillaries of the superficial structures. The practical difficulty associated with this form of treatment is that the initial vasoconstriction is followed later by a marked vasodilatation.

Effect on deeper structures
Cold applications and treatment have little effect on the capillaries of the deeper structures. This is because the network of blood vessels in the skin acts as an insulator; in other words, the blood flowing through the skin vessels absorbs the cold before it can penetrate to the deeper structures. Because of this, the immediate treatment of soft-tissue injuries should consist of pressure bandaging combined with a cold application and treatment.

Cold Treatment techniques:
Immersing in ice-cold water
This cold treatment is suitable only for injuries of the wrist, hand, foot and ankle. It consists of immersing the injured part for about 10 to 20 minutes in a pail or deep bowl of cold water to which ice cubes or crushed ice have been added. It is advisable to check the temperature of the water with a bath thermometer. After cold treatment the wet pressure bandage is removed and a new bandage applied. If immersion is not practicable the pressure bandage may be soaked thoroughly, the water being applied with a sponge

Wet towels
Several pieces of terry toweling, about 30 x 24 in. are soaked in a bucket containing a mixture of cold water and crushed or flaked ice. The towels are wrung out to get rid of excess moisture, and then applied this cold treatment to the injured area. They are changed every minute, and the whole sequence of cooling should last for about 10 to 20 minutes. From a practical point of view half the number of towels required (having been folded lengthwise) should be left soaking in the bucket while the others are used.

Cold packs
Damp terry toweling bags of a suitable size are filled with flaked-or crushed ice. The injured part is wiped with oil to prevent the possibility of an ice burn, and covered with a paper tissue to prevent soiling of the bag. The ice pack is then molded round the part. If the trunk is being treated it is helpful to hold the pack in place by a broad canvas strap passed round the body.  As an alternative to toweling plastic or rubber bags may be used. 

Ice massage
A paper tissue is wrapped round one end of an ice cube. The cube is then massaged slowly over the painful area for about 5 minutes. This is a useful form of cold treatment for relieving pain over a small area (ligaments, for example); it is possible that ice massage acts as a counter-irritant and helps to reduce the conductivity of the pain fibers in the nerves involved.

Cold compresses
A piece of white lint, cut and folded to the required size (to make a double thickness), is soaked in ice-cold water.  The lint is squeezed out gently, so that it is not made too dry, and applied to the affected part. It is then covered with a piece of jaconet or oiled silk, and bandaged lightly in position with a few turns of cotton bandage. The compress of cold treatment must be changed frequently, and used for about 20 minutes. A pressure bandage is then applied. In general, cold compresses have a very limited effect.


The tips for Sports Injury Treatment when the injured body parts can be used almost normally

(1) To accustom the injured tissues to being without support. This is achieved by using an elastoplast or crepe bandage support. Both types of support allow considerable freedom of movement, but provide the injured structures with a certain degree of stability. It is never advisable to take away all support from the injured tissues before they have recovered completely. If this is done the injured part tends to swell when used, owing to a leakage of the blood
fluid from the capillaries into the tissue spaces. The swelling gives rise to considerable pain and stiffness. The leakage of the blood fluid is due to a loss of tone of the capillary walls, which have become accustomed to the firm support of the original strapping.

(2) To disperse any residual effusion or thickenings. This is accomplished by the auto-massage pressure of the strapping or crepe bandage. When strapping is used the massage can be localized most effectively by strapping over a pad of adhesive felt. Heat treatments, remedial exercises and deep massage are also of great value.

(3) To strengthen the muscles of the injured part, and to restore full joint movement. The player practices all types of strengthening and mobilizing exercises, including weight-resisted exercises. Usually the supporting bandage or strapping is removed for the treatment session; it may be retained for the stronger exercises.

(4) When Sports training is started, please pay attentions to prepare the injured part for the normal stresses and strains of the game or event. This is done by the player resuming training and carrying out all the normal movements which are expected of him. The Injured part should be supported by a firm strapping, to prevent a recurrence of the injury.

For two to three months after the injury has recovered fully the player should have the injured part strapped firmly each time he takes part in a game or event. The time factor, of course, will depend on the severity of the original injury.

The treatment for 24 to 36 hours after sports injury, until injured body parts can be used almost normally

(1) To disperse the traumatic effusion, i.e. (a) to spread the free blood fluid into the surrounding tissues, so that it mil be drained away by the uninjured lymphatic vessels and veins, and (b) to assist the drainage of any excess amount of synovial fluid . This aim is accomplished by the use of strapping and various forms of physiotherapy.

Strapping. The injured part is strapped firmly and the player encouraged using it as normally as possible; in injuries of the lower limb this usually includes walking. The pressure of the strapping on the moving muscles and joints acts as a most efficient form of auto-massage, which improves the circulation and the lymphatic drainage of the part.
To increase the effect of the massage the strapping may be applied over a pad of adhesive felt, which is positioned over the injured tissues.

Two types of strapping may be used: (a) Zinc oxide adhesive plaster, and (b) Elastoplasts combined with supporting strips of zinc oxide plaster. Support is necessary until the traumatic effusion has been completely dispersed; this may take anything from two or three days to two weeks or more, depending on the severity of the original injury.

Protecting the skin. The skin is often sensitive to the adhesive spread, or may be irritated by the strapping being changed frequently, as when daily massage is given. To protect the skin the strapping may be applied after the injured part has been covered by a few turns of ordinary cotton bandage, which has been previously soaked in cold water. The strapping must overlap the bottom and top edges of the cotton bandage by about i to I in., so that it is securely fastened to the skin.

When using elastoplasts another method of protecting the skin may be tried. The non-adhesive side of the strapping is applied to the skin; the reinforcing strips of zinc oxide plaster are then arranged over the adhesive surface. Any areas which are left uncovered are powdered with talcum powder to make them less sticky.

Joint injuries. In dealing with a joint injury which is associated with a large synovial effusion strapping is not used. A pressure bandage is applied to the joint, the injured limb is rested, and the controlling muscles exercised by static contractions and other non-weight-bearing exercises which do not cause movement of the affected joint.

Physiotherapy. Massage, exercises, contrast baths, faradic stimulation and anodal galvanism may be used to disperse the traumatic effusion. Two or more of the treatments are generally used in combination, and the choice depends on individual preference and the stage of recovery. In the early stage, for example, anodal galvanism, faradism and contrast baths may be employed; later, massage and exercises.

(2) To prevent movements which might stretch the damaged structures and break down the delicate repair tissue which joins the ends of the torn fibers. This aim is achieved, as far as possible, by arranging the strapping so that it holds the injured tissues in a relaxed position. With many muscle injuries this is not practicable, and the therapist has to support the affected muscles in a circular manner, and instruct the player not to put them on the stretch.

(3) To assist repair. The aim is accomplished by the measures which have been previously outlined for improving the circulation and preventing the damaged structures from being stretched. Some form of heat therapy may also be used to improve the blood supply of the injured part-short-wave diathermy, infra-red radiation, radiant heat or hot packs.

(4) To strengthen the muscles of the affected part, especially those which may have been injured. The player practices some simple remedial exercises which do not stretch the damaged structures or require too much muscular effort; in practice this means exercising within the limit of pain.

(5) To maintain the normal range of movement of the joint or joints of the injured part. This is done by using exercises of the type suggested above. Unless the joints are exercised their movements may be seriously limited by the formation of thickenings and adhesions.

Immediately treatment after the sport injuries for about 24 to 36 hours

(1) To limit the traumatic effusion (swelling), and so restrict the amount of “Sticky” blood fluid in the tissue spaces. This is achieved by applying a pressure bandage to the injured part. A calico or crepe bandage is used over several layers of cotton wool, each layer being compressed by turns of bandage; it is essential that the turns cover the injured part adequately, and extend well above and below it. In general calico bandages are used when treating joints and crepe bandages when dealing with muscle injuries.

Strapping should not be used to limit traumatic effusion in the early stage of injury; it may produce an uneven, cordlike compression, which may increase the effusion. It should be noted, however, that when an injury does not appear to be of a severe nature, and it is considered essential for the individual to continue to use the injured part, an elastoplasts strapping is used instead of a pressure bandage. The principle of allowing an injured player or athlete to resume activity immediately after an injury is basically unsound, and should not be accepted by the trainer or therapist unless he is acting on medical advice.

Ice-Cold Water. When pressure has been applied the injured part may be immersed in ice-cold water for about 10 to 20 minutes; if immersion is not practicable the bandage may be soaked, the water being applied with a sponge for the same length of time. The wet bandage is then removed, and a new pressure bandage applied. The cold water relieves pain, and may help to check effusion by causing a local constriction of the capillaries.

Local Injections of Hyaluronidase. In recent years many doctors have used local injections of hyaluronidase to accelerate the dispersal of traumatic effusion. The injections are used in conjunction with the other forms of physical treatment mentioned in this section.

(2) To prevent movements which might stretch or strain the injured structures and so (a) cause a recurrence of the bleeding, or (b) pull the ends of the torn fibers apart and so hinder repair. This aim is accomplished by supporting the damaged structures with the pressure bandage in such a way that they are completely relaxed, and then to resting the injured part. The type of rest required will depend on the severity of the injury; in injuries of the lower limb it may vary from complete rest in bed with the limb raised on pillows (to assist circulation and aid drainage of inflammatory exudates) to semi-rest, e.g. walking with crutches without taking weight on the injured limb. la injuries of the upper limb a triangular sling may be used to provide rest.

(3) To relieve pain. To a certain extent this aim is achieved by the measures which are taken to fulfill the previous aims pressure, support, cold applications and rest. In addition some type of pain-relieving drug (e.g. aspirin) may be prescribed by the doctor. It should be noted that when rest in bed is required for an injury of the lower limb a considerable amount of discomfort and pain is often experienced if the bedclothes are allowed to rest on the limb. A bedclothes support should be improvised by putting a large cardboard box or a pile of books on the mattress at the foot of the bed.


Minor Sports Injuries and More Serious Sports Injuries

It is convenient to consider sports injuries in two main groups:

(1) Minor injuries, in which there is no real damage to the tissues, such as strains of muscles and tendons; The reactions of the tissues to trivial injuries are often obscure and difficult to assess; in general they are those of a mild, localized inflammation, and pain and stiffness are the main symptoms. Many of the injuries are caused by over-use of the affected part, and clear up with rest; some require support by strapping or bandaging, especially when training is resumed. If more specific treatment is necessary it follows the lines suggested for the more serious injuries.

(2) More serious injuries, in which there is actual destruction of some of the tissues, such as muscle tears and sprains of ligaments. Three main changes occur in the tissues when they are more seriously injured: loss of substance or continuity, rupturing of some of the small blood vessels and localized inflammation.

When some part of a structure is torn or crushed (as by a blow), the small blood vessels of the injured area are ruptured, and bleed into the tissues. The blood seeps between the various tissue layers; its spread is aided by the action of the muscles, the effect of gravity, and the pressure of the membranous coverings. This is the reason why braising often appears in areas which are some distance from the injured part. Soon after the injury the capillaries constrict and the blood clots. The blood then consists of a jelly-like substance and a fluid part (the plasma, which has lost certain elements concerned in the clotting process). The clot seals off the ends of the ruptured vessels, and links the torn tissue fibers together. Special connective tissue cells, known as fibroblasts, grow into the links and eventually repair the damage. The fluid part of the escaped blood is drained away by the lymphatics, and eventually returns to the general circulation.

At the same time as these changes occur the undamaged capillaries in the neighborhood of the injury dilate, so that they hold more blood than usual. Their walls become more porous, and a considerable amount of sticky blood fluid (plasma) and a large number of white corpuscles pass through them into the tissues to mingle with the blood from the damaged vessels. The free blood fluid is known as inflammatory exudates.

These changes are concerned with repair and healing. The inflammatory exudates stimulate the formation and growth of the fibroblast repair cells. The white corpuscles act as scavengers and remove the tissue cells which have been destroyed; they also deal with the blood clot in the same way. The signs of these changes are local heat, redness, swelling and pain. The heat and redness are caused by the extra amount of blood in the arterioles and capillaries of the injured area. The swelling is due partly to the dilation of the capillaries and partly to the accumulation of fluid in the tissues. The pain is either the result of some of the nerves being involved in the injury or of their being compressed by the distended tissues.


The Staleness after Sports Training and Personal Training Resume

How much sports training are necessary? The answer is simple: the maximum amount in relation to the game or event. Correct sports training cannot reduce the efficiency of any player, and it does not cause staleness, as is sometimes thought. Staleness is the bogey of all trainers and players. The player feels that his muscles are heavy, and his performance loses its edge; often he sums this up by saying that he seems to have no snap in his body.

Staleness is probably caused by psychological factors, although it is not always easy to find the exact source of the trouble. Some factors which are worth considering in this respect are given below:
(1) Has the sports training routine become monotonous? How often has it been varied?
(2) Is the player happy at home? Does he have regular and sound meals?
(3) Is the player completely fit? Has he contracted an illness which has not been diagnosed?
(4) Has the player an injury which he is trying to hide?
(5) Is the player mentally and physically equipped for the game or event?
(6) Is there complete harmony among the players? Is the team losing more matches than it is winning?
(7) Is the player unpopular with a section of the crowd?

When a muscle or tendon has been injured the structures are put through a full range of active or resisted movement, absence of pain (or slight pain on the final degrees of resisted movement) indicates that treatment can be discontinued and training started.

Before an injured player is allowed to resume sports training the damaged structures must be thoroughly tested. This involves both specific tests of ligaments and muscles and functional tests. If a ligament has been injured the structures are put on the stretch by passive movements, pain at the beginning or middle part of the movement indicates that further treatment is necessary, and training cannot be resumed. If pain is not experienced, or is apparent only when the structures fully stretched, training can be resumed and treatment discontinued.

When sports training are resumed the injured structures should be supported by some form of strapping, such as zinc oxide plaster, elastoplast, or a combination of both forms of strapping. The strapping must be applied carefully, without folds or creases; this is particularly important after injuries of the ankle and foot. An indifferently applied ankle or foot support can easily cause soreness or blistering of the skin.

To protect the part the player automatically holds his foot in a different position from normal; this alters the co-ordination of the part and may result in injury.

At first sports training should be relatively light. It should be increased gradually until finally the player is practicing all the skills and basic movements of the game.

The injured part should be examined the day after training to check for any-recurrence of injury; this practice should be continued over several sports training sessions. Whenever possible the injured structures should be compared with the corresponding sound tissues. Points to observe on examination are: swelling, pain on palpation and movement, and undue warmth at the site of injury.


Three Types of Sports Training and the Factors in Reducing the Incidence of Sports Injury

Sports training increases body endurance, strength, speed and efficiency. Players who have not trained to their full capacity are liable to sustain sport injuries during play, because fatigue or imperfect co-ordination lead to faulty movements.

Sports training may be divided into (1) Endurance training, (2) Strength or power training and (3) Skill training. These are interrelated, and it is often possible to carry them out simultaneously.

Endurance training
Endurance training aims at developing the efficiency of the heart and lungs, so that the blood and oxygen supply to the working muscles is increased. This facilitates the functioning of the muscles and reduces body fatigue and incidence of sports injury. The training consists of (1) General rhythmical exercises, (2) Running and skipping, (3) Minor team games, (4) Circuit training and (5) High repetition lifts with low weights. It should also include the types, of movements which are related to specific forms of sport, e.g. starting, stopping and direction-changing movements would feature in the endurance training program of a rugby, hockey or soccer player.

Strength or power training
Strength or power training is necessary to prepare the player for the “expulsive effort”, e.g. moving quickly into the open space or racing for a loose ball.
Power training includes (1) Strengthening exercises, (2) Sprinting and (3) Low repetition lifts with heavy weights. All parts of the body should be exercised, and it is most important that the upper extremity should not be neglected. Press-ups, pull-ups, hand-stand press-ups, weight-and-pulley exercises, and activities such as Wrist wrestle are particularly useful. Proof of the importance of developing the muscles of the upper extremity can be seen when one looks at the international sprinter; the arms and shoulder-girdle are developed in a similar degree to the lower limbs.

Skill training
Skill is a vital factor in reducing the incidence of sports injury, and the player must spend many hours in practicing the individual skills of his game. For example, the tennis player should practice the service, smash, forehand and backhand strokes, and be able to recover quickly; the soccer player should practice trapping, dribbling, swerving, turning, kicking the moving ball, timing the tackle, quick direction changing and heading; he must be able to use each foot with equal skill, and swerve or turn to left or right with ease.


Some Reasons for Being Constantly Tired and Tips for Fighting Back with Chronic Fatigue

One in four Americans complain of fatigue lasting longer than two weeks. Such a condition can signal anything from inadequate sleep to serious ailments. It can be a side effect of drugs, from antihistamines to beta blockers. Therefore, diagnosis can be tricky and time consuming.

People say vague things like "I find myself feeling tired". It's more helpful to look at other tired symptoms. A fever can mean infection. If a patient’s voice is hoarse, and the doctors may think thyroid. Here are some reasons for being constantly tired, and tips for fighting back with extreme fatigue.

1. Sleep Debt
It's exhausting just listening to Carrie King describe her days: up at six o'clock, a 30-mile drive to campus, classes, home to cook dinner, then off to take the kids to music lessons and ball games. "I can't start my school work until after nine,” she says. "I try to get six hours of sleep but often don't. I don't have the energy to exercise. "

Most people need seven to nine hours of shut eye a night, but many of us get less. As truck drivers have found, that can be dangerous, leading to micro sleeps — brief periods, lasting one to ten seconds, when you're snoozing even though your eyes are open.

When, you've lost “zzz”, make up for it by going to bed earlier the next night. If you can't, you might sleep longer on weekends to catch up. Another way: after work, set the alarm clock and take a 20 to 40 minute nap— no longer or you may toss and turn that night.

Have trouble sleeping? One in three Americans do, and one in ten have chronic insomnia. It's natural to have sleepless nights when you're stressed out or ill. If that's not the reason, avoid caffeine within six hours of bedtime and alcohol within one to two hours. Go to bed only when you're tired; if you're still awake after 20 minutes or so get up and read or watch TV until you feel like nodding off. If insomnia persists, or if daytime drowsiness interferes with work, see a doctor.

2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Seven and a half million Americans — mostly women, infants and children—are run-down because of iron-deficiency anemia: their blood has too little hemoglobin. The molecule that carries oxygen to cells. Hemoglobin levels can fall because of eating too little iron, especially with strict vegetarian and weight loss diets, and because of blood loss. Anemia is common among women with heavy menstrual periods, and may develop in people with chronic bleeding from peptic ulcers, colon cancer, colitis, or other diseases of causes of fatigue.

It may seem smart to take iron pills just to be safe. Actually that's not safe for everyone. Anemia can be a sign of serious illness, such as kidney failure or colon cancer, and pills won't solve the problem. Another reason not to pop iron casually is that fatigue also can be caused by iron overload. Some people are genetically prone to store high levels of iron, which can lead to irreversible organ damage and death. One sign of severe iron overload is a gray-brown cast to the skin. Anemia, by contrast, makes people pale, especially around the nail beds, palms and lips.

If you suspect you are anemic, blood tests can measure your hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells. Then get a doctor's advice.

3. Grief Reaction

After a tragedy such as a death in the family, it's normal to feeling tired. Almost all recently widowed people sleep either too much or too little, grieving people are expected to bounce back within a year, but a study by the Institute of Medicine in Washington D. C. found that it can take up to three years to readjust after losing a spouse.

Life is filled with less obvious losses than a death—a divorce, lost job, declining health or passing youth. These can also cause grief and exhaustion.

Support groups help people with losses of all kinds. Check your newspaper or call a library, church, synagogue, hospice or hospital social services department. If grieving seriously interferes with everyday life, you may need to be treated for depression. For some, it helps simply to know that time is a healer.

4. Sleep Apnea

Some people had the classic symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. This "snoring sickness", which can run in families, affects four percent of adult women and nine percent of adult men—particularly middle-aged, overweight men.

During an episode of obstructive sleep apnea, the upper airway collapses, cutting off breathing. This is signaled by raucous snoring, followed by gasping and waking. People with apnea may wake up hundreds of times a night, often unknowingly. The fractured sleep leaves them constantly tired.

A doctor can determine if you suffer from sleep apnea by testing you, usually at sleep lab. Mild cases can improve with weight loss; sleeping on one's side can also help. For more severe cases, there are devices that hold the tongue away from the throat or move the jaw forward. Also available are continuous positive airway pressure masks, which force air through the nose and down the throat. In very rare cases, surgery may be required.

5. Depression

Many of the fatigue cases doctors see arc due to clinical depression. This serious but treatable condition is so prevalent it could be considered the common cold of mental illness: about 24 percent of women and 15 percent of men will suffer one or more episodes of clinical depression during their lives.

Clinical depression is thought by many to result from an imbalance in the brain chemicals (such as serotonin and norepinephrine) that influence mood and behavior. These neurotransmitters, as they're called, can be affected by illness, prolonged stress, and emotional traumas like divorce and even by genetics.

How can you tell whether your fatigue is due to depression and not to an illness like the flu? Someone who's depressed often feels worn out in the morning, and the tiredness tends to come and go. Ill people, in contrast, usually feel better after a night's rest but gel more tired as the day wears on.

Depression-fatigued people typically lack motivation to do things they normally enjoy. They often can't concentrate, remember things or make decisions and these are certainty causes of fatigue.

Depression can be treated by medication and psychotherapy. Ironically, antidepressants can have drowsiness as a side effect, but some are less sedating than others.

6. Thyroid Imbalance

If you're sleeping a lot, even 16 hours at a time, yet still have to drag yourself through the day, you may have a thyroid problem, The thyroid gland, located in the neck just below the Adam's apple, produces hormones, that tell your cells how fast to work. If the gland produces less than a normal amount of thyroid hormone, the body suffers a metabolic slowdown: your heart rate may decline? You may get constipated and experience muscles cramps, your skin can become dry your hair thin and your voice husky; and you may gain weight for no obvious reason. This condition, called hypothyroidism, typically affects women over 50.

Oddly, having too much thyroid hormone—hyperthyroidism can also cause fatigue, because high hormone levels can weaken muscles. Other symptoms are rapid heartbeat, sweating and weight loss. Hyperthyroidism can strike at any age and usually results from the autoimmune disorder Graves' disease.

Doctors test for thyroid trouble by feeling for an enlarged gland and by ordering special blood tests. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism require medication for the treatment of feeling tired.

7. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

People with this aliment aren't just tired; their fatigue is debilitating, keeping them away from work and play for six months or longer. It can be accompanied by a bizarre constellation of symptoms that come and go, including muscle pain, sore throat, tender lymph nodes, headaches and impaired memory. For some reason, exercise can bring exhaustion one to three days later.

Doctors still aren't sure what causes chronic fatigue syndrome, but some believe it affects up to 400,000 adults in the United States. One theory suggests that a virus, stress or trauma jump-starts the immune system, which then remains activated instead of gearing down as it should. As a result, immune factor—some of which cause fatigue—may remain in high concentration in the blood.

Chronic fatigue syndrome has similarities to fibromyalgia, a rare disorder of the soft tissues; some experts even believe they are the same, people with fibromyalgia also tire, but their main complaint is muscle pain. Many say they hurt all over.

There's no lab test for either condition. A diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome is made only after a medical workup has ruled out other problems. Low-dose antidepressants and pain medications can help relieve some symptoms. Doctors also recommend moderate exercise.

8. Post-Flu Ennui

In his years of practice, some doctors seen it happen time and again: sick people get well, and then worry when their languor doesn't lift. Actually, that post-flu ennui is due to the body's immune system. When you get an infection, you produce proteins called cytokines that help white blood cells devour bacteria and other invaders. These cytokines also lay you low,and for fatigue to persist for a month or so after the runny nose, fever and muscle aches are gone.

Prematurely jumping back into the swing of things can bring on a relapse, and then, if you've been sick lately or had a fever, go slow with the activities and get plenty of rest. If you or someone you love is constantly tired, you can get the helps you need from doctors and find causes of fatigue.


The Illustrated Arm Workout – Arm Strengthening Exercise

Arm Strengthening Exercises 1
1. Stand upright with your feet apart. Keep your right arm straight beside your body and hold an object of an appropriate weight.
2. Lift up and then lower the object repeatedly 15 times.
3. Perform similar movements on the left side 15 times.

Arm Strengthening Exercises 2
1. Rest your forearm on a table with the palm facing upward. Hold an object (such as a can of drink) in your hand.
2. Let your hand drop naturally.
3. Lift the object up slowly until your wrist reaches the horizontal level.
4. Repeat the above movements 30 times.
5. Perform similar movements with the other hand 30 times.

Arm Strengthening Exercises 3
1. Rest your forearm on a table with the palm facing downward. Hold an object (such as a can of drink) in your hand.
2. Let your hand drop naturally.
3. Lift the object up slowly until your wrist reaches the horizontal level.
4. Repeat the above movements 30 times.
5. Perform similar movements with the other hand 30 times.

The Illustrated Arm Workout - Arm Stretches

Arm Stretches Exercise 1

1. Put the right hand behind I your head. Use the left hand to pull the right elbow B gently to the left. Hold for 5 seconds and then relax.
2. Perform the movements on the other side.
3. Repeat this set of movements 5 times.

Arm Stretches Exercise 2
1. Spread out and straighten your fingers as much as you can for 5-10 seconds.
2. Relax your hands slowly.
3. Clench your fists tightly for 5-10 seconds.
4. Repeat this set of movements 10 times.

1. Hold out the right arm with the palm facing forward. Use the left hand to pull the right hand backward gently. Hold for 5 seconds and then relax.
2. Keep the right arm extended but with the palm facing backward. Use the left hand to pull the right hand backward gently. Hold for 5 seconds and then relax.
3. Repeat the movements using left arm and right hand.
4. Repeat this set of movements 5 times.

Arm Stretches Exercise 4

1. Fingertips of both hands facing each other.
2. Stretch the webs between the thumbs and the index fingers by pressing the fingers against each other as close as possible. Hold for 5 seconds and then relax.
3. Repeat the above i!; movements 5 times.
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